千亿体育

《數據安全法》為全球數據安全治理貢獻中國智慧和中國方案
來源:千亿体育 作者(zhe): 發(fa)布(bu)時(shi)間: 2021-06-16

隨(sui)著(zhu)信息技術和人類生(sheng)(sheng)產生(sheng)(sheng)活交匯融合,各類數(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)迅猛(meng)增長、海量聚集(ji),對經(jing)(jing)濟發(fa)展、人民生(sheng)(sheng)活產生(sheng)(sheng)了重(zhong)大(da)(da)而深刻的(de)影響。數(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)已成為事關國(guo)家安(an)全(quan)與經(jing)(jing)濟社會(hui)發(fa)展的(de)重(zhong)大(da)(da)問題。黨中(zhong)央高度(du)重(zhong)視,就(jiu)加強(qiang)數(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)工作(zuo)和促進數(shu)(shu)(shu)字化發(fa)展作(zuo)出一系列(lie)重(zhong)要部(bu)署(shu)。按(an)照黨中(zhong)央決策部(bu)署(shu),貫徹總(zong)體國(guo)家安(an)全(quan)觀的(de)要求,全(quan)國(guo)人大(da)(da)常委會(hui)積極推(tui)動數(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)立法工作(zuo)。經(jing)(jing)過三次(ci)(ci)審議(yi),2021年6月10日,《數(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)法》經(jing)(jing)十三屆(jie)全(quan)國(guo)人大(da)(da)常委會(hui)第二十九次(ci)(ci)會(hui)議(yi)通過并正(zheng)式發(fa)布,將于2021年9月1日起(qi)施行。

作為我(wo)國(guo)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)全領域的(de)基(ji)礎性法(fa)律(lv)(lv),《數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)全法(fa)》主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)有以(yi)下三個(ge)特點: 一是(shi)堅持安(an)全與發(fa)(fa)(fa)展并(bing)重。設(she)專章對支(zhi)持促(cu)進(jin)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)全與發(fa)(fa)(fa)展的(de)措施作了規(gui)定(ding),保護(hu)個(ge)人、組織與數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)有關的(de)權益,提升(sheng)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)全治理(li)和數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)開發(fa)(fa)(fa)利用水平,促(cu)進(jin)以(yi)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)為關鍵生產要(yao)(yao)(yao)素的(de)數(shu)字經濟(ji)發(fa)(fa)(fa)展;二(er)是(shi)加(jia)(jia)強(qiang)具體制(zhi)度與整體治理(li)框(kuang)架(jia)的(de)銜接。從基(ji)礎定(ding)義、數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)全管理(li)、數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)分類分級、重要(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)出境(jing)等(deng)方面,進(jin)一步加(jia)(jia)強(qiang)與《網絡安(an)全法(fa)》等(deng)法(fa)律(lv)(lv)的(de)銜接,完善我(wo)國(guo)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)治理(li)法(fa)律(lv)(lv)制(zhi)度建(jian)設(she);三是(shi)回應(ying)社會關切(qie)。加(jia)(jia)大(da)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)處理(li)違法(fa)行(xing)為處罰力度,建(jian)設(she)重要(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)管理(li)、行(xing)業自律(lv)(lv)管理(li)、數(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交易管理(li)等(deng)制(zhi)度,回應(ying)實踐(jian)問題及社會關切(qie)。

《數(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)》完(wan)善了國家數(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)工(gong)(gong)作體(ti)制機(ji)制,規(gui)(gui)定中(zhong)央國家安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)領導機(ji)構負責(ze)國家數(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)工(gong)(gong)作的(de)決策和議(yi)事協(xie)調(diao)(diao)(diao)等職責(ze),并提出(chu)建立國家數(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)工(gong)(gong)作協(xie)調(diao)(diao)(diao)機(ji)制。在網絡數(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)工(gong)(gong)作方面(mian),專門(men)明確國家網信部門(men)依照本法(fa)和有關(guan)法(fa)律、行政法(fa)規(gui)(gui)的(de)規(gui)(gui)定,負責(ze)統(tong)籌協(xie)調(diao)(diao)(diao)網絡數(shu)(shu)據(ju)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)和相關(guan)監管工(gong)(gong)作。

《數(shu)(shu)(shu)據安(an)全法》重點確立了(le)數(shu)(shu)(shu)據安(an)全保(bao)護(hu)的各項(xiang)(xiang)基(ji)本(ben)制(zhi)度,完善了(le)數(shu)(shu)(shu)據分類分級(ji)、重要(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)據保(bao)護(hu)、跨境數(shu)(shu)(shu)據流動(dong)和數(shu)(shu)(shu)據交易(yi)管(guan)理等多項(xiang)(xiang)重要(yao)制(zhi)度,形(xing)成了(le)我國數(shu)(shu)(shu)據安(an)全的頂層設計。

《數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》對(dui)(dui)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)分(fen)(fen)(fen)類(lei)(lei)分(fen)(fen)(fen)級(ji)制(zhi)度(du)進行了探(tan)索。《數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》第二(er)十一條規(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding),根據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)在(zai)經(jing)濟社會發展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)程度(du),以及(ji)一旦遭(zao)到(dao)篡改、破壞、泄露(lu)或(huo)者(zhe)非法(fa)(fa)(fa)獲取、非法(fa)(fa)(fa)利(li)(li)用(yong),對(dui)(dui)國家(jia)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)、公共利(li)(li)益(yi)或(huo)者(zhe)個人(ren)、組織合法(fa)(fa)(fa)權(quan)益(yi)造成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)危害程度(du),對(dui)(dui)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)實(shi)(shi)行分(fen)(fen)(fen)類(lei)(lei)分(fen)(fen)(fen)級(ji)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu),并明(ming)確(que)加強(qiang)對(dui)(dui)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu),對(dui)(dui)關(guan)(guan)系國家(jia)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)、國民經(jing)濟命脈、重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)民生、重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)大公共利(li)(li)益(yi)等(deng)內容的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國家(jia)核心數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju),實(shi)(shi)行更加嚴格(ge)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)管(guan)(guan)理制(zhi)度(du)。《數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》針對(dui)(dui)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)在(zai)管(guan)(guan)理形式和(he)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求上(shang)提(ti)出(chu)了嚴格(ge)和(he)明(ming)確(que)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)制(zhi)度(du)。在(zai)管(guan)(guan)理形式上(shang),《數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》采用(yong)目(mu)錄管(guan)(guan)理的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方(fang)式,明(ming)確(que)將“確(que)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)目(mu)錄”納入國家(jia)層面管(guan)(guan)理事項,國家(jia)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)工作協(xie)調(diao)機(ji)(ji)制(zhi)統籌協(xie)調(diao)有關(guan)(guan)部(bu)門(men)制(zhi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)目(mu)錄。而各地(di)(di)區(qu)、各部(bu)門(men)制(zhi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)本(ben)地(di)(di)區(qu)、本(ben)部(bu)門(men)及(ji)相關(guan)(guan)行業、領域的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)具(ju)體目(mu)錄,有利(li)(li)于形成國家(jia)與各地(di)(di)方(fang)、各部(bu)門(men)管(guan)(guan)理權(quan)限(xian)之間的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)合理協(xie)調(diao)機(ji)(ji)制(zhi),推動(dong)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)統一認(ren)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)標(biao)準的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)建立。在(zai)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求上(shang),《數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》在(zai)一般保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)之外,強(qiang)化了重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)、核心數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求。一是規(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)處理者(zhe)開(kai)(kai)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)處理活動(dong)應(ying)當(dang)依照法(fa)(fa)(fa)律法(fa)(fa)(fa)規(gui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)規(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding),建立健全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)流(liu)程數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)理制(zhi)度(du),組織開(kai)(kai)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)教(jiao)育培訓,采取相應(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技(ji)術措施和(he)其他必要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)措施,保(bao)障數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan);二(er)是規(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)了重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)處理者(zhe)“明(ming)確(que)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)負責(ze)人(ren)和(he)管(guan)(guan)理機(ji)(ji)構”的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)義務,要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)處理者(zhe)在(zai)內部(bu)作出(chu)明(ming)確(que)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)責(ze)任(ren)劃分(fen)(fen)(fen),落實(shi)(shi)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)(hu)責(ze)任(ren);三是規(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)了重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)處理者(zhe)進行風險(xian)評(ping)估(gu)(gu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求,重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)處理者(zhe)應(ying)當(dang)按照規(gui)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)對(dui)(dui)其數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)處理活動(dong)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)期開(kai)(kai)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)風險(xian)評(ping)估(gu)(gu),并向有關(guan)(guan)主管(guan)(guan)部(bu)門(men)報送(song)風險(xian)評(ping)估(gu)(gu)報告。風險(xian)評(ping)估(gu)(gu)報告應(ying)當(dang)包(bao)括處理的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)種類(lei)(lei)、數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)量,開(kai)(kai)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)處理活動(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情況(kuang),面臨的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)風險(xian)及(ji)其應(ying)對(dui)(dui)措施等(deng)。

《數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)法》建(jian)立數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)評(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)、報告、信息(xi)共(gong)享、監測預(yu)(yu)警(jing)和應急處(chu)置(zhi)機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi),通過對數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)信息(xi)的(de)(de)(de)獲取、分析、研(yan)(yan)判、預(yu)(yu)警(jing)以及(ji)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)事(shi)(shi)件(jian)發(fa)生(sheng)后(hou)的(de)(de)(de)應急處(chu)置(zhi),實(shi)現數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)事(shi)(shi)前(qian)、事(shi)(shi)中和事(shi)(shi)后(hou)的(de)(de)(de)全(quan)(quan)(quan)流(liu)程保(bao)障。《數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)法》第(di)(di)二十(shi)二條規(gui)(gui)定(ding): “國家(jia)(jia)(jia)建(jian)立集中統一、高效權威的(de)(de)(de)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)評(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)、報告、信息(xi)共(gong)享、監測預(yu)(yu)警(jing)機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)。國家(jia)(jia)(jia)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)工作(zuo)(zuo)協(xie)調機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)統籌協(xie)調有關(guan)部(bu)門加強(qiang)數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)信息(xi)的(de)(de)(de)獲取、分析、研(yan)(yan)判、預(yu)(yu)警(jing)工作(zuo)(zuo)。”第(di)(di)二十(shi)九條規(gui)(gui)定(ding): “開展數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)處(chu)理活動(dong)應當(dang)加強(qiang)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)監測,發(fa)現數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)缺陷、漏(lou)洞等風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)時(shi),應當(dang)立即采取補救措施……”從(cong)(cong)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)(du)銜接(jie)上看,數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)評(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)、報告、信息(xi)共(gong)享、監測預(yu)(yu)警(jing)機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)是(shi)國家(jia)(jia)(jia)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)組成部(bu)分。《國家(jia)(jia)(jia)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)法》第(di)(di)四章第(di)(di)三(san)節建(jian)立了風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)預(yu)(yu)防(fang)、評(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)和預(yu)(yu)警(jing)的(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)關(guan)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)(du),規(gui)(gui)定(ding)國家(jia)(jia)(jia)制(zhi)(zhi)定(ding)完善應對各領域國家(jia)(jia)(jia)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)預(yu)(yu)案。數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)評(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)、報告、信息(xi)共(gong)享、監測預(yu)(yu)警(jing)機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)是(shi)《國家(jia)(jia)(jia)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)法》規(gui)(gui)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)預(yu)(yu)防(fang)、評(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)和預(yu)(yu)警(jing)相(xiang)關(guan)制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)(du)在數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)領域的(de)(de)(de)具體落實(shi)。從(cong)(cong)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)階段上看,數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)風(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)險(xian)評(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)、報告和信息(xi)共(gong)享構(gou)成了數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de)事(shi)(shi)前(qian)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)義務,監測預(yu)(yu)警(jing)機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)構(gou)成了數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)的(de)(de)(de)事(shi)(shi)中保(bao)護(hu)(hu)義務,數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)事(shi)(shi)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)應急處(chu)置(zhi)機(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)形成了對數(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)的(de)(de)(de)事(shi)(shi)后(hou)保(bao)護(hu)(hu)。

《數(shu)據(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》對(dui)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)出境(jing)(jing)(jing)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)進行了(le)補(bu)充(chong)和(he)(he)(he)完善(shan)。一是(shi)針(zhen)對(dui)重要數(shu)據(ju)(ju)完善(shan)了(le)跨境(jing)(jing)(jing)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)流(liu)(liu)動制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度,《數(shu)據(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》在《網(wang)絡(luo)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》第三十七條的(de)(de)(de)(de)基礎之上,規(gui)定(ding)“其他數(shu)據(ju)(ju)處(chu)理(li)者(zhe)在中(zhong)(zhong)華(hua)(hua)人民(min)共(gong)和(he)(he)(he)國(guo)(guo)境(jing)(jing)(jing)內運營(ying)中(zhong)(zhong)收集和(he)(he)(he)產生的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要數(shu)據(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)出境(jing)(jing)(jing)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)辦法(fa)(fa)(fa),由(you)國(guo)(guo)家網(wang)信部(bu)門會同(tong)(tong)(tong)國(guo)(guo)務(wu)院有(you)(you)關(guan)部(bu)門制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)定(ding)。”既與《網(wang)絡(luo)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》相銜(xian)(xian)接,也實現了(le)對(dui)所有(you)(you)重要數(shu)據(ju)(ju)出境(jing)(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)保障。二是(shi)通過出口(kou)(kou)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)形式限制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)了(le)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物項數(shu)據(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)出口(kou)(kou),《數(shu)據(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》第二十五條規(gui)定(ding)“國(guo)(guo)家對(dui)與維護國(guo)(guo)家安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)和(he)(he)(he)利益、履行國(guo)(guo)際義務(wu)相關(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)屬于管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)物項的(de)(de)(de)(de)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)依(yi)(yi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)實施出口(kou)(kou)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)”,明(ming)確將數(shu)據(ju)(ju)出口(kou)(kou)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)納入(ru)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)工(gong)作中(zhong)(zhong),實現了(le)與《出口(kou)(kou)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》的(de)(de)(de)(de)銜(xian)(xian)接,有(you)(you)利于從維護國(guo)(guo)家安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)角度限制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)相關(guan)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)出境(jing)(jing)(jing),對(dui)整體跨境(jing)(jing)(jing)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)流(liu)(liu)動制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度進行補(bu)充(chong)。三是(shi)對(dui)外國(guo)(guo)司(si)(si)(si)法(fa)(fa)(fa)、執(zhi)(zhi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)機構(gou)(gou)調取我(wo)國(guo)(guo)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情況進行了(le)規(gui)定(ding)。《數(shu)據(ju)(ju)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》第三十六條首先(xian)明(ming)確“中(zhong)(zhong)華(hua)(hua)人民(min)共(gong)和(he)(he)(he)國(guo)(guo)主(zhu)(zhu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)機關(guan)根據(ju)(ju)有(you)(you)關(guan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)律和(he)(he)(he)中(zhong)(zhong)華(hua)(hua)人民(min)共(gong)和(he)(he)(he)國(guo)(guo)締結或(huo)者(zhe)參加的(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)際條約、協(xie)定(ding),或(huo)者(zhe)按照平等互惠原(yuan)則,處(chu)理(li)外國(guo)(guo)司(si)(si)(si)法(fa)(fa)(fa)或(huo)者(zhe)執(zhi)(zhi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)機構(gou)(gou)關(guan)于提供(gong)(gong)(gong)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)請求(qiu)。”同(tong)(tong)(tong)時(shi)規(gui)定(ding)“非經中(zhong)(zhong)華(hua)(hua)人民(min)共(gong)和(he)(he)(he)國(guo)(guo)主(zhu)(zhu)管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)機關(guan)批準”不得向境(jing)(jing)(jing)外執(zhi)(zhi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)或(huo)司(si)(si)(si)法(fa)(fa)(fa)機構(gou)(gou)提供(gong)(gong)(gong)境(jing)(jing)(jing)內數(shu)據(ju)(ju),并對(dui)違(wei)法(fa)(fa)(fa)違(wei)規(gui)提供(gong)(gong)(gong)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)行為,明(ming)確了(le)包(bao)括警告、罰(fa)款等在內的(de)(de)(de)(de)行政處(chu)罰(fa)措施。這(zhe)一制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度的(de)(de)(de)(de)設(she)置體現了(le)對(dui)于合(he)法(fa)(fa)(fa)合(he)規(gui)向外國(guo)(guo)司(si)(si)(si)法(fa)(fa)(fa)或(huo)者(zhe)執(zhi)(zhi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)機構(gou)(gou)提供(gong)(gong)(gong)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重視,明(ming)確了(le)我(wo)國(guo)(guo)處(chu)理(li)外國(guo)(guo)司(si)(si)(si)法(fa)(fa)(fa)或(huo)者(zhe)執(zhi)(zhi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)機構(gou)(gou)關(guan)于提供(gong)(gong)(gong)數(shu)據(ju)(ju)請求(qiu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一般原(yuan)則,同(tong)(tong)(tong)時(shi)也是(shi)依(yi)(yi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)應對(dui)少(shao)數(shu)國(guo)(guo)家肆(si)意濫用長臂管(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)(guan)轄,防(fang)范我(wo)國(guo)(guo)境(jing)(jing)(jing)內數(shu)據(ju)(ju)被外國(guo)(guo)司(si)(si)(si)法(fa)(fa)(fa)或(huo)執(zhi)(zhi)法(fa)(fa)(fa)機構(gou)(gou)不當(dang)獲取。

數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度的(de)確立使(shi)得數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)依法(fa)(fa)(fa)有序(xu)流動成(cheng)為現實。數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)是數(shu)(shu)字(zi)經濟(ji)(ji)時代的(de)重要(yao)生產要(yao)素,而(er)數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易則是滿(man)(man)足數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)供(gong)給(gei)和需要(yao)的(de)最(zui)主要(yao)方式,明(ming)確數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易的(de)法(fa)(fa)(fa)律地(di)位,是滿(man)(man)足現實需求、助力數(shu)(shu)字(zi)經濟(ji)(ji)發展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)重要(yao)表現,是當(dang)前數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度發展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度基(ji)礎。《數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)安全(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》第十九條(tiao)規(gui)(gui)定(ding)國家建立健(jian)全(quan)(quan)(quan)數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易管理制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度,規(gui)(gui)范數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易行為,培育數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易市場。此(ci)外,《數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)安全(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》還在(zai)第三十三條(tiao)規(gui)(gui)定(ding)了(le)(le)數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易中(zhong)(zhong)介(jie)服務機構(gou)(gou)的(de)主要(yao)義務,規(gui)(gui)定(ding)從事數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易中(zhong)(zhong)介(jie)服務的(de)機構(gou)(gou)在(zai)提(ti)(ti)供(gong)交(jiao)(jiao)易中(zhong)(zhong)介(jie)服務時,應當(dang)要(yao)求數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)提(ti)(ti)供(gong)方說明(ming)數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)來源,審核(he)交(jiao)(jiao)易雙方的(de)身份,并留存審核(he)、交(jiao)(jiao)易記錄。《數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)安全(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》為數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度提(ti)(ti)供(gong)了(le)(le)兼顧安全(quan)(quan)(quan)和發展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)原則性規(gui)(gui)定(ding),有利于在(zai)保障安全(quan)(quan)(quan)基(ji)礎上(shang),促進(jin)數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)有序(xu)流動,激勵相關主體參與到數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)交(jiao)(jiao)易活動中(zhong)(zhong)來,充分釋放數(shu)(shu)據(ju)(ju)(ju)紅(hong)利。

隨著(zhu)《數據安(an)全法》的(de)正式出臺,我國網絡法律法規體(ti)系實(shi)現進(jin)一步完善,為(wei)后續(xu)立(li)法、執法、司法相關實(shi)踐提供了重要法律依據,為(wei)數字經濟的(de)安(an)全健康發展(zhan)提供了有(you)力支(zhi)撐(cheng)。(作者: 方禹,中國信(xin)息通(tong)信(xin)研(yan)(yan)究院互(hu)聯網法律研(yan)(yan)究中心主任)

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